Cyber defenders are constantly being challenged from attackers who are looking for vulnerabilities within their infrastructure to exploit and gain access. Defenders must have timely threat information available to them about: software updates, patches, security advisories, threat bulletins, etc., and they should regularly review their environment to identify these vulnerabilities before the attackers do. Understanding and managing vulnerabilities is a continuous activity, requiring focus of time, attention, and resources.
Attackers have access to the same information and can often take advantage of vulnerabilities more quickly than an enterprise can remediate. While there is a gap in time from a vulnerability being known to when it is patched, defenders can prioritize which vulnerabilities are most impactful to the enterprise, or likely to be exploited first due to ease of use. For example, when researchers or the community report new vulnerabilities, vendors have to develop and deploy patches, indicators of compromise (IOCs), and updates. Defenders need to assess the risk of the new vulnerability to the enterprise, regression-test patches , and install the patch.
There is never perfection in this process. Attackers might be using an exploit to a vulnerability that is not known within the security community. They might have developed an exploit to this vulnerability referred to as a “zero-day” exploit. Once the vulnerability is known in the community, the process mentioned above starts. Therefore, defenders must keep in mind that an exploit might already exist when the vulnerability is widely socialized. Sometimes vulnerabilities might be known within a closed community (e.g., vendor still developing a fix) for weeks, months, or years before it is disclosed publicly. Defenders have to be aware that there might always be vulnerabilities they cannot remediate, and therefore need to use other controls to mitigate.
Enterprises that do not assess their infrastructure for vulnerabilities and proactively address discovered flaws face a significant likelihood of having their enterprise assets compromised. Defenders face particular challenges in scaling remediation across an entire enterprise, and prioritizing actions with conflicting priorities, while not impacting the enterprise’s business or mission.
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